No doubt, that neurobiology is a major field of current medical research. Many labs are working hard to define the causes of mental diseases like psychotic disorders, Parkinson’s syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, or addiction. More fundamentally, there is still a lack of knowledge on physiological aspects of sensory or motor systems, mechanisms involved in the development and functioning of consciousness, perception, memory, effects of aging or injuries, and neuroplasticity. Cancers affecting the nervous system are also intensively studied.
One challenge for neurobiologists is to manipulate cell or animal models in the lab, for which transfection has notably a strong limitation. Primary neurons and neural stem cells are for instance not easily amenable to transfection mediated by chemical reagents because of reduced endocytosis and nuclear entry. Electroporation or viral transduction remain the main used method for these cells.